Rajvi Palace


Unraveling the Mysteries of a Prehistoric Past

Kalibangan, an archaeological wonder, beckons history enthusiasts and explorers to uncover its intriguing prehistoric secrets. This ancient site’s identity as a prehistoric treasure trove was initially brought to light by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist, whose fascination with ancient Indian texts led him on a remarkable journey of discovery in the early 20th century.

Tessitori was astounded by the character of the ruins in the Kalibangan region and sought assistance from Sir John Marshall of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). At that time, ASI had been conducting excavations in Harappa, yet the true nature and significance of the ruins in Kalibangan remained a mystery. Tessitori, a visionary, became the first to recognize that these ruins were not only prehistoric but also pre-Mauryan, marking a unique and significant cultural era.

Regrettably, Tessitori passed away five years before the full extent of the Harappan culture was understood, and the archaeological world came to appreciate the profound significance of Kalibangan in the context of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Following India’s independence, Indian archaeologists redoubled their efforts to uncover the rich historical heritage within their borders. Amlānand Ghosh, former Director General of ASI, was the first to recognize Kalibangan as a Harappan site officially and earmarked it for excavation. Under the leadership of B. B. Lal, then Director General of ASI, and with the dedicated efforts of a team including Balkrishna (B.K.) Thapar, M. D. Khare, K. M. Shrivastava, and S. P. Jain, an extensive excavation project was launched, spanning nine years from 1960 to 1969.

Kalibangan’s excavation revealed a remarkable dual sequence of cultures. The upper layer, known as Kalibangan I, is associated with the Harappan civilization and showcases a metropolis’s distinctive grid layout characteristic. Below it lies Kalibangan II, previously referred to as pre-Harappan but now recognized as “Early Harappan or antecedent Harappan.” The site’s significance lies in its rich history and contribution to our understanding of the progression of cultures in the region.

Kalibangan’s historical narrative is intertwined with other nearby sites belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization, including Balu in Haryana, Kunal in Haryana, Banawali, and more. These sites collectively offer a glimpse into the prehistoric tapestry of the Indian subcontinent and continue to captivate archaeologists and history enthusiasts alike.

A visit to Kalibangan is a journey back in time, allowing you to explore the mysteries of a prehistoric world meticulously unearthed and pieced together by dedicated archaeologists. It’s a testament to human ingenuity, perseverance, and the quest to uncover our ancient past’s secrets.